I would also like to thank Dr. Imme Scholz as well as two anonymous reviewers for their very constructive and detailed comments and suggestions on how to improve an earlier draft of this article. Published here under license by The Resilience Alliance. Go to the pdf version of this article. The following is the established format for referencing this article: van de Sand, I.
Principles and Asian Context
Madagascar - the priority sectors for adaptation are: agriculture and livestock, forestry, public health, water resources and coastal zones. Mauritius - adaptation should address the following priority areas: coastal resources, agriculture, water resources, fisheries, health and well-being, land use change and forestry and biodiversity. Mozambique - "The proposed adaptation initiatives target various areas of economic and social development, and outline projects related to the reduction of impacts to natural disasters, the creation of adaptation measures to climate change, fight against soil erosion in areas of high desertification and coastal zones, reforestation and the management of water resources.
Rwanda has developed the National Adaptation Programme of Action NAPA which contains information to guide national policy-makers and planners on priority vulnerabilities and adaptations in important economic sectors. South Africa is in the progress of finalising its national climate change adaptation strategy. Tanzania Tanzania has outlined priority adaptation measures in their NAPA, and various national sector strategies and research outputs. Zambia - "The NAPA identifies 39 urgent adaptation needs and 10 priority areas within the sectors of agriculture and food security livestock, fisheries and crops , energy and water, human health, natural resources and wildlife  ".
Zimbabwe - "The other strategic interventions by the NAP process will be: Strengthening the role of private sector in adaptation planning, Enhancing of the capacity of Government to develop bankable projects through trainings, Improving management of background climate information to inform climate change planning, Crafting a proactive resource-mobilization strategy for identifying and applying for international climate finance as requests for funds are primarily reactive at present, focusing on emergency relief rather than climate change risk reduction, preparedness and adaptation, Developing a coordinated monitoring and evaluation policy for programs and projects, as many institutions within the government do not currently have a systematic approach to monitoring and evaluation.
IPCC Working Group II,  the United States National Academy of Sciences ,  the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction Office,  and other science policy experts  agree that while mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is important, adaptation to the effects of global warming will still be necessary. Some, like the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers , worry that mitigation efforts will largely fail.
Given that greenhouse gas levels are already elevated, the lag of decades between emissions and some impacts, and the significant economic and political challenges of success, the IPCC group points out that it is uncertain how much climate change will be mitigated. Developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change. Doing so depends on such factors as wealth, technology, education, infrastructure, access to resources, management capabilities, acceptance of the existence of climate change and the consequent need for action, and sociopolitical will.
By , however, it was still judged likely that there would be significant climate change impacts. This was judged to be the case even with aggressive mitigation and significantly enhanced adaptive capacity. The IPCC group also pointed out that climate change adaptation measures can reinforce and be reinforced by efforts to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty. Adaptation and mitigation can be viewed as two competing policy responses, with tradeoffs between the two. The other tradeoff is with climate change impacts. In practice, however, the actual tradeoffs are debatable.
Grist: A Strategic Approach to Climate
Economists , using cost-benefit analysis , have attempted to calculate an "optimal" balance of the costs and benefits between climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. Also, deciding what "optimal" is depends on value judgements made by the economist doing the study Azar, Some reviews indicate that policymakers are uncomfortable with using the results of this type of economic analysis. Another type of analysis is based on a risk -based approach to the problem. It has been argued that adaptation could play an important role in climate policy , but not in an explicit trade-off against mitigation.
Various attempts have been made to estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change. However, this estimate was criticised as underestimating costs of adaptation by a factor of 2 or 3, particularly as it did not take into account sectors such as tourism, mining, energy and retail. The benefits of strong, early action on mitigation considerably outweigh the costs. According to Al Gore , writing in in Earth in the Balance ,  adaptation represented a "kind of laziness, an arrogant faith in our ability to react in time to save our skins".
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But for every day mitigation is delayed, the need for adaptation grows," which is problematic because "adaptation is more expensive and requires bigger government than mitigation. The are some measure that seems like adaptation, but can lead, in fact, to more climate sensitivity and more climate change. For example, reliance on air conditioning gives relief from the heat, but can create an addiction to it, e. According to a report  released by Greenpeace USA in September , climate change denial and the campaigns designed to block adaptation measures grew mainly out of the s negotiations slated to develop a global agreement.
University of Melbourne / Online Boo
During these talks, a number of lobby groups were established with an objective of developing doubt within policymakers and the media through the use of publications in the guise of true science. This tactic, similar to those of large tobacco companies, was utilized by the lobby groups in the hopes of delaying action and blurring the lines between the valid scientific efforts to challenge climate change findings and those designed to merely undermine the credibility of the scientific community.
This strategy feeds into the "uncertainty argument" and develops an impression of debate through references to the uncertainty of scientific findings that exist in any research model. Additional tactics that the lobbyist groups have used include releasing non-stories manufactured from stolen emails and communications plans to develop more media coverage of the uncertainty argument. A book by the Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag on 'conflict-sensitive adaptation' sheds light on unintended damaging effects of climate adaptation measures.
The book draws on findings from Africa and outlines how conflict-sensitive adaptation activities should look that are cognizant of the conflict-effects adaptation may have. The authors provide a "Memorandum for Action on Adaptation for Peace and Stability" that outlines principles to support processes for adaptation and peace such as the establishment of peace and conflict assessments for adaptation programmes, mainstreaming climate change adaptation in conflict-prone contexts, applying conflict sensitive approaches or provisions to ensure participatory processes to design and implement adaptation measures.
Several countries have taken a lead in climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Their web sites contain reports, strategies, and tools which other countries can customize to their own situation. In addition to government and United Nations reports, an extensive research literature assesses options for response to global warming.
Much of this literature addresses the potential economic costs associated with different strategies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated.
Regional organisations supporting health sector responses to climate change in Southeast Asia
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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climatic Change. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C. Magadza, M. Oppenheimer, A. Pittock, A. Rahman, J. Smith, A. Suarez and F. Yamin Executive summary. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. Hanson, Eds.